In this tutorial you will learn how to:
Swing introduced modified MVC pattern (for more details see http://java.sun.com/products/jfc/tsc/articles/architecture/). To update model I'll use observer pattern (if you're not familiar with it, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observer_pattern) which is directly supported in Java by
Observable class and
Observer interface in
For the example let's choose currency converter application fromJava Generics and Collections book by Maurice Naftalin and Philip Wadler (http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/javagenerics/) from chapter 9.5. It will show explicitly the benefits from using dynamic language like Groovy over static typed Java with generic observer pattern introduced in the book. If you would like to see implementation of generic observer pattern you can download examples from the book website and have a look.
OK. Let's start with the model:
The converter model allows conversions over three different currencies. As you can see it extends Observable class to provide Model class observable behaviour (for more details see java.util.Observable).
Now let's create two custom widgets for displaying rate and value.
These classes extends
JTextField to hold model and currency which is representing. They also implement
Observer interface to be noticed when the model is changed. As you can see in update method there are not class casts required although it receives
Object, because as dynamic nature of Groovy. Also in
setModel method safe dereferencing is shown to protect from throwing
NullPointerException when initially model is
Now let's put it all together.
Frame is constructed by using
swing.frame(). To frame there are provided
size properties. You can think of it like creating a new instance of
JFrame and invoking methods
setSize(). Then 12 components are added to frame:
When new rate or value is entered all action listeners of that component are noticed with actionPerformed() method (java.awt.ActionListener). To construct classes which implements ActionListner interface SwingBuilder provides action() builder method. One of this method's attributes is closure when we are able to provide our closure with application logic. The closure argument has ActionEvent type.
Download the source code of the example: SwingBuilderObserver.groovy